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        1. 新东方网>英语>职称英语>历年真题>正文

          职称英语历年真题理工A概括大意精选(2)

          2016-12-20 15:34

          来源:互联网

          作者:

            Climate Change: The Long Reach

            (1) Earth is warming. Sea levels are rising. There's more carbon in the air, and Arctic ice is melting faster than at any time in recorded history. Scientists who study the environment to better gauge (评估) Earth's future climate now argue that these changes may not reverse for a very long time.

            (2) People burn fossil fuels like coal and oil for energy. That burning releases carbon dioxide, a colorless gas. In the air, this gas traps heat at Earth's surface. And the more carbon dioxide released, the more the planet warms. If current consumption of fossil fuels doesn't slow, the long-term climate impacts could last thousands of years--and be more severe than scientists had been expecting. Climatologist Richard Zeebe of the University of Hawaii at Manoa offers this conclusion in a new paper.

            (3) Most climate-change studies look at what's going to happen in the next century or so. During that time, changes in the planet's environment could nudge ( 推动) global warming even higher. For example: Snow and ice reflect sunlight back into space. But as these melt,sunlight can now reach--and warm--the exposed ground. This extra heat raises the air temperature even more, causing even more snow to melt. This type of rapid exaggeration of impacts is called a "fast feedback".

            (4) Zeebe says it's important to look at fast feedbacks. However, he adds, they're limited. From a climate change perspective. "This century is the most important time for the next few generations," he told Science News. "But the world is not ending in 2100." For his new study,Zeebe now focuses on "slow feedbacks". While fast feedback events unfold over decades or centuries, slow feedbacks can take thousands of years. Melting of continental ice sheets and the migration of plant life--as they relocate to more comfortable areas--are two examples of slow feedbacks.

            (5) Zeebe gathered information from previously published studies investigating how such processes played out over thousands of years during past dramatic changes in climate.Then he came up with a forecast for the future that accounts for both slow and fast feedback processes. Climate forecasts that use only fast feedbacks predict a 4.5 degree Celsius (8.1 degree Fahrenheit) change by the year 3000. But slow feedbacks added another 1.5 ℃--for a 6 total increase, Zeebe reports. He also found that stow feedback events will cause global warming to persist for thousands of years after people run out of fossil fuels to burn.

            23~26概括大意

            23. Paragraph 2__________

            24. Paragraph 3 __________

            25. Paragraph 4 __________

            26. Paragraph 5 __________

            A. Rising of sea levels

            B. Impact of burning fossil fuels

            C. Fast feedbacks

            D. Slow feedbacks

            E. Unpredictability of feedback processes

            F. A prediction of future climate change

            27~30完成句子

            27. Arctic ice has never been melting so fast in __________.

            28. Melting of snow and ice enables sunlight to reach __________.

            29. Zeebe came up with his future climate prediction by analyzing __________.

            30. After fossil fuels are used up, global warming will continue for__________.

            A. the exposed ground

            B. a very long time

            C. the extra heat

            D. recorded history

            E. previously published studies

            F. rapid exaggeration of impacts

            23.A。题干:第二段的主要内容是__________。本段属于递进结构。首句讲到“人们经常燃烧化石燃料来获取热量和能量?#20445;?#20174;第二句开始阐述燃烧化石燃料会?#22836;?#20108;氧化碳,从而对气候产生影响。因此本段的主题是B(燃烧化石燃料的影响)。

            24.C。题干:第三段的主要内容是__________。该段的主题句为最后一句:这个过程叫作fast feedback。

            25.D。题干:第四段的主要内容是__________。该段为转折结构。第一句为引子“看快速反馈是十分重要的?#20445;?#31532;二旬前的however使得话锋一转,认为快速?#20174;?#26159;有局限的,从而可推理得知该段的主题为slow feedback,这与该段中间的总结是一致的。故本题选D。

            26.F。题干:第五段的主要内容是__________。该段主题句为第二句:(在基于以前收集的信息基础上)他得出了解释未来快速?#20174;?#19982;慢速?#20174;?#36827;程的结论以及由此结论得到气候上升度数不同的结论。因此本题选F最合适。

            27.D。题干:北极的冰在从未融化得如此之快。根据Arctic ice回到原文定位到第一段第二句“Arctic ice is melting faster than at any time in recorded history.”可知,该空应该填入D。

            28.A。题干:冰雪的融化使得阳光能达到__________。根据melting snow and ice回到原文定位到第三段,由“Butasthesemelt,sunlightcannow reach—andwam—theexposedground”可知该空应该填入the exposed ground。这里的these指代的就是melting snow and ice。

            29.E。题干:Zeebe通过分析__________预测了未来气候变化。通过Zeebe came up with his future climate prediction回到原文定位到最后一段,首句中?#20889;?#26696;:收集以前的研究数据。

            30.B。题干:化石燃烧尽了之后,全球变暖还会__________。用After fossil fuels are used up定位到末段的最后一句“causeglobalwarmingtopersistforthousands ofyears afterpeople run out offossil fuels to bum?#20445;?#21487;知该空答案为B。其中use up与run out对应,thousands of years对应选项中的a very long time。

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